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Using local languages in English language classes (Ahmar Mahboob)

One of the most consistent findings in the NNEST literature is that both students and teachers find the NNESTs (and other teachers) proficiency in the students’ vernacular as a positive and useful resource. If this finding is indeed valid, then one might ask: why is it that ELT teacher education programs and teacher educators do not train the teachers in judicious and pedagogically appropriate uses of local languages in the classrooms? Why is it that the administrators do not sanction or approve of the use of local languages in classrooms (and sometimes the whole school)? And, why is it that teachers feel ashamed and guilty of using local languages as part of their lessons? In this brief essay, I will share some of the reasons for a lack of engagement in local languages in TESOL & Applied Linguistics and will then (based on some current research) outline ways in which teachers may use local languages to achieve their pedagogical purposes.

There are two major reasons that have led to a development of negative attitudes towards the use of local languages in English language classes. The first reason is related to the history of English language teaching and teacher education; while the second is related to the study of and literature on second language acquisition. Here, we will explore both these factors and identify some of the myths that these factors have resulted in.

English language teaching evolved from practices in foreign language teaching. In early days, the dominant approach to language teaching was the grammar translation approach. This approach gave a primary position to a (dominant) local language (by dominant local language I mean a language that is considered a language of literacy in local contexts; this might or might not be the same as a learners’ mother tongue)and used it extensively in building knowledge of and about the target language. Many of the teachers of languages in these contexts were non-native speakers of the target language. The grammar-translation approach was used to teach not only English but also a range of other foreign languages.

The teaching approaches that developed in the 20th century can be seen as a succession of methods that reacted to the (perceived) shortcomings of the one preceding them. So, for example, the Direct Approach emphasized oral communication skills, which was not a focus of grammar translation method. The Direct Approach, like the other major approaches to language teaching in the 20th century were developed in English speaking countries (predominantly in the UK and the USA). The teachers trained for teaching English (and the teacher trainers/researchers) in these contexts mostly spoke English as a mother tongue; furthermore, the ESL student population in these countries came from a number of different language backgrounds. Given these contextual factors, the role of local languages was not really considered as a factor in the development of pedagogical material or training of teachers. Later, as larger groups of international teacher trainees came to the West for being trained as teachers and teacher educators, they were also trained in the methodologies developed for the ‘mother tongue’ English teachers. As such, these teachers and other educators from NESB (non-English speaking backgrounds) were not directly trained or instructed in the use of local languages in teaching English. In many cases they were explicitly instructed not to use the vernaculars as it was seen as a potential threat to the development of the target language.

Over time, these Western trained educators, who were valued in their home countries as being “foreign” trained, went back to their home countries and further spread the belief that the use of local languages needs to be discouraged in ESL and other English-based education. A result of this has been a negative attitude towards the use of local languages in schooling. This negative positioning of local languages was more a result of the context in which these methodologies were developed and used rather than about a careful consideration of their value or role in non-English dominant countries.

Table 1 below provides a summary of some of the key teaching approaches developed in the 20th century, the context in which these methods were developed, and their position vis-à-vis the use of vernaculars. The table shows that other than the grammar-translation method, the other approaches do not have a systematic approach to using local languages in English language classrooms. It also shows that these approaches were developed in the UK and/or the USA, which partly explains why they did not have a clearly defined role for using local languages.

Table 1: Major teaching approaches and the role given to local languages. Source: Mahboob (2011).

Teaching approach
Context of development
Use of local language
Grammar translation
EFL (also used for other languages)
Dominant (local used extensively)
Direct approach
Europe and US
No use of students’ vernaculars
US (then spread)
No use of students’ vernaculars
Cognitive approach
Limited use of students’ vernaculars
Affective-humanistic approaches
Varied, but limited use of students’ vernaculars
Natural approach
Use of vernaculars discouraged
Communicative approach
US & UK (then spread)
Use of vernaculars discouraged

In our context today, as we have a large and professionally trained cadre of NNESTs (or other teachers with an understanding of local languages), we need to revisit the role that local languages can play in ELT and integrate this understanding into our classroom practices. In the latter part of this essay, we will start to consider ways in which we can use local languages productively. However, before we do this, we will look at another major factor that resulted in a negative attitude towards the use of local languages in English language classrooms.

A second major reason for developing a negative attitude towards the use of local languages in English language classes is the research on second language acquisition. For example, the notion of ‘acquisition’ itself suggests that something is being acquired which is different from what one already has (as opposed to the notion of ‘development’, where one is developing language by adding new ways of creating and representing meanings). This sense of acquisition is most salient in foundational work in SLA (second language acquisition) studies. For example, Selinker’s (1972) notions of fossilization and interlanguage highlight a (inaccurate?) belief that the goal of a learner is to move away from their mother tongue features and adopt the features of an ‘ideal’ ‘native’ speaker of the target language. In this context, there was little role for the use of mother tongue in English language learning/teaching – local languages were seen as a source of interference that needed to be overcome.

In another major theory of SLA, Krashen (1985) posited that the one necessary and essential requirement for SLA is access to comprehensible input in the target language. Once again, there was no real place for or role of local languages in Krashen’s model. While many researchers today question the validity of Krashen’s work; there is still a belief that the use of local languages have negative consequences in an ESL class. Some of the beliefs and myths that result from this work in SLA include: a) use of vernaculars lead to language transfer or negative interference; b) additional languages are best learnt by being immersed in target language, i.e. immersion in the target language is essential; and c) the goal of additional language learning is to sound like native speakers. Research on NNESTs and World Englishes have, over the last two decades, been trying to dispel these beliefs and have been conducting research using an NNEST lens (Mahboob 2010). The NNEST lens, as I have defined elsewhere, is a lens of multilingualism, multinationalism, and multiculturalism through which NNESTs – as classroom practitioners, researchers, and teacher educators – take diversity as a starting point, rather than as a result.

In recent years, there has been some more focussed work on studying the role of local languages in English language classrooms. This work sees local languages as a resource rather than a threat in language classes. Here I will share two recent papers that provide examples of how to use L1s successfully in English language classrooms.

Forman (2010) shares ten principles for using L1 in English language classes. These principles and the reasons for using them are given in Table 2 below. In his paper, Forman also provides a number of examples for each of these principles.

Table 2: The ten principles of using local language in English language classrooms. Source: Forman (2010; p. 78)

L2 development
To explain L2 vocabulary, grammar, usage, culture
To facilitate easy, ‘natural’ interaction amongst students and with teacher
Interpersonal development
To develop collaborative, team-work abilities
To make good use of limited classroom time
To convey meaning successfully
To ensure that all students can participate
To respond to immediate teaching/learning needs
Classroom management
To maintain discipline
Globalised communication
To enable students to move flexibly and effectively across two languages
Political positioning
To resist the political dimension of global English

In another recent publication, Swain, Kirkpatrick, and Cummins (2011) provide guidelines on how to use local languages ‘guilt free’ in an English language class. Among other things, they state that using the local languages help in making the content comprehensible because it allows teachers/students to: a) Build from the known, b) Provide translations for difficult grammar and vocabulary, and c) Use cross-linguistic comparisons. Once again, they provide a number of examples of how this can be done successfully in actual classes.

This recent work on the use of local languages has started to identify some of the reasons why we need to consider using local languages in English language classrooms. While this research has been productive, we still need considerable new thinking in this area. I do hope that this short essay for the NNEST blog will encourage colleagues to develop and carry out more in-depth and systematic studies on this issue. This work will be invaluable as we train our future English language teachers and teacher educators.


Forman, R. (2010). Ten principles of bilingual pedagogy in EFL. In A. Mahboob (Ed.), The NNEST lens: Nonnative English speakers in TESOL. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Beverly Hills, CA: Laredo Publishing Company.

Mahboob, A. (2010). The NNEST lens: Nonnative English speakers in TESOL. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Mahboob, A. (2011). Using local languages in the English classroom: Positions, politics, and possibilities. Plenary address given at the Linguistics Society of the Philippines National Conference and General Meeting, Ateneo de Manila University, Manila, the Philippines (August 19-20).

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 209-231.

Swain, M., Kirkpatrick, A. & Cummins, J.(2011). How to have a guilt-free life using Cantonese in the English class: A handbook for the English language teacher in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Research Centre into Language Acquisition and Education in Multilingual Societies, Hong Kong Institute of Education.

Ahmar Mahboob was born in Karachi (Pakistan), grew up in Ajman (United Arab Emirates), and received his tertiary education in Pakistan and the United States of America. Ahmar currently teaches in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Sydney, Australia.

APA style for citing from the blogpost:

Mahboob, A. Using local languages in English language classes. Retrieved month date, year (e.g. September 1, 2011), from


  1. To use or not to use L1? This is a debatable topic, and one that is highly relevant in many teaching contexts. Take Hong Kong as an example, where the majority of students and teachers speak Cantonese, English teachers tend to feel guilty about using L1. Some schools don't even allow teachers to use L1 in English classrooms, especially in English-medium schools. An argument for using L1, however, is that when teachers can spend so little time explaining grammar and vocabulary in L1, there’s no point using English to do the explanation – especially when teachers don't often explain clearly in English!

    The recent work on the use of L1 as a resource for NNESTs, as pointed out by Ahmar, definitely provides good food for thought. It is indeed an area of research that warrants attention.

    Ahmar, thanks so much for this inspiring blogpost!

    Icy Lee
    The Chinese University of Hong Kong

  2. Thanks Dr Sir

    This is definitely gonna help me in my research activities.

  3. I have for a long time advocated for appropriate use of L1 in the ESL classroom and have been saddened to have met so many NNES couleagues who have been endocrinated into believing that any use of the L1 in the classroom is heresy.

    One the other hand I remember my days as an English Language Assistant in a French college-lycee where consistently 45 minutes of every 50 minute English class was conducted in French--and the only English heard was the students stating the answers they had written down on their homework.

    Obviously use/need are the ultimate instructional determinants here, BUT if English is to be treated as a tool of communication, not simply a school subject, the the bulk of the classroom procedural language needs to be in English. I will argue that in most E*F*L settings, if the work of the English class is not being essentially conducted in English then students will likely never encounter anyone doing business in English in any other setting either. Immersion learning works because it makes use of the L2 meaningful. Providing most of the classroom procedural language in English shows students it IS a tool of communication, not just a subject of study.

    If I was to propose a "rule-of-thumb" criterion for deciding whether use of the L1 is appropriate it might be to have teachers ask themselves, "Am I using the L1 because its use here advances my students' learning, or am I using it as a crutch because it's just too much work to figure out how to say it in English?"

    That "criterion" is right off the top of my head--I provide it to provoke discussion, not with any presumption of offering a final word. :-)

    Thank to Ahmar for this important offering.

    Brock Brady

  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

  5. Thanks all.

    Brock, you touch on a point that I'm currently looking into: where/when/how does the use of a local language works best. I'm currently working on analyzing bilingual classroom discourse through an Exchange Structure Analysis to study how local languages are used by effective teachers. I'm hoping that it will give us a better (and a more theoretically informed) way of talking about these questions.

  6. Interesting and informative read; thanks, Ahmar!

    I've been in language classes where the official policy is not to speak the students' vernaculars, only the target language, and being a multilingual Asian, I've been presumed to speak or have spoken a language other than English in class and discriminated against (even when I didn't).

    Where there's an official policy, I seek to conform to it even though I disagree with it. I never understood why I could not use a tool - even if deemed unorthodox - I have at my disposal to do my job as well as I can. Where there's no policy, I use my discretion.

    Yes, students in EFL contexts (or ESL contexts where there's a sufficient number of them congregating at any particular location) need an English-speaking environment to enhance and speed up their L2 learning experience, but saying that their vernaculars cannot be used at all is first arbitrary and also vexatious. It is in the nature of bilinguals/multilinguals to think in the languages they know. Language purism, I am sure, exists mostly among the monolinguals and those who perceive some sort of superiority in speaking in one and only one language at any or all points in time - theirs.

    I use the students' languages to the extent I can in circumstances similar to Forman's principles, and I believe that it contributes to my effectiveness as an ESL/EFL teacher, not to mention my popularity among my students. Personally, they pay me to teach them how to use English productively, and what counts is that they learn how to use the language proficiently, not whether some orthodox administrator deems me worthy enough for the next pay raise or job promotion. Everything is political!

  7. Hi Samantha,

    Thanks for your comments. Here are some thoughts that I did not have space to write up earlier, but would like to share in response to your note.

    I remember that as a student in primary school, we were fined for using Urdu in class or on the playground. This did not, of course, stop us from using Urdu. In fact, while the policy existed, it was hardly ever enforced in earnest. There were symbolic cases that were made public every now and then, but generally speaking we were not reported for this.

    I also remember that the teachers broke the rule too. They would sometimes use Urdu in the classes to help us with difficult concepts and issues. They were not allowed to, but they did - and, I'm so glad that they did because we might have taken much longer to understand things that were easy enough to grasp in Urdu. (Please do note that Urdu was NOT the mother tongue of all students; it was, however, the dominant 'local language' in our English medium Pakistani school in Sharjah, UAE.)

    I know that my stories here are not unique. I hear similar stories from colleagues and students from all around the world. Given these experiences, the push to English only does bother me: why have these rules in the first place? We might also want to ask questions such as: how do they impact children from different socio-economic, socio-cultural, and linguistic backgrounds? do these policies result in unequal distribution of learning-teaching resources and experiences? And, more importantly, what alternatives are possible?

    These are some of the questions that we need to raise as we consider this issue more seriously.

  8. Dear Ahmar,
    thank you for this inspiring contribution!
    I have been waiting for words like yours for a while.
    I fully agree with all the points you make. I've been an Italian-native teacher of English in Italian state schools for over 30 years and I've always believed I should have never slipped into my mother tongue when teaching English. Which was useful, I mean, because it sustained me in establishing a special 'shared code' with my students. They soon learnt that they had to use English in order to learn it. But sometimes I felt that there was something that had to be shared in the students' language. It was mostly when I had to explain difficult concepts, or when I was trying to establish meaningful links with the language they used everyday at school. By making references to how they used Italian during the day helped me better focus their attention on features of communication, e.g. how they listened, how they spoke etc.. Furthermore, the students' knowledge about their own language is often very limited, and it gets better and more refined when they start learning a foreign language. They start reflecting upon their own language. They learn it better through the foreign language.
    Using the mother tongue was also necessary when Italian classes became more and more multicultural and multilingual and the level of knowledge of Italian of many migrant students was as low as their knowledge of English. I had to use Italian while eliciting each student’s reflection on their own mother tongue.
    Hope we’ll be able to address this topic again in the future,
    Best, and thank you again, Ahmar!

    Lucilla Lopriore
    A book that I’d suggest because it sustained me in my use of the mother tongue in the English class was Using the Mother Tongue: Making the Most of the Learner’s Language by Mario Rinvolucri and Sheelagh Deller, Delta Publishing, 2002.

  9. Thanks Lucilla. Thanks also for sharing that reference. I am also attaching some additional references of interest here. A.

    Auerbach, E. (1993). Re-examining English only in the ESL classroom. TESOL
    Quarterly, 27(1), 9-32.

    Brooks-Lewis, K. A. (2009). Adult learners’ perceptions of the incorporation
    of their L1 in foreign language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics,
    30(2), 216-235.

    Butzkamm, W. (2003). We only learn language once. The role of the mother
    tongue in FL classrooms: death of a dogma. Language Learning Journal, 28,

    Canagarajah, A. S. (1995). Functions of codeswitching in ESL classrooms:
    Socialising bilingualism in Jaffna. Journal of Multilingual and
    Multicultural Development, 6(3), 173-195.

    Carless, D. (2007). Student use of the mothertongue in the task-based
    classroom. ELT Journal, 62(4) 331-337.

    Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern
    Language Review, 57(3), 402-423.

    Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in
    multilingual classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10,

  10. I wasn't able to post all the references into a single reply, so am adding them across a few comment posts.

    Edstrom, A. (2006). L1 use in the L2 classroom: One teacher’s self-evaluation. Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(2), 275-292.

    Ferguson, G. (2003). Classroom code-switching in post-colonial contexts: functions, attitudes and policies. AILA Review, 16, 38-51.

    Forman, R. (2007). Bilingual teaching in the Thai EFL context: One teacher’s practice. TESOL in Context, 16(2), 19-24.

    Forman, R. (2010). Ten principles of bilingual pedagogy in EFL. In A. Mahboob (Ed.) The NNEST Lens: Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL. Newcastle
    upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.

    Halliday, M. A. K., Macintosh, A., & Strevens, P. (1964). The linguistic sciences and language teaching. London: Longman.

    Harbord, J. (1992). The use of the mother tongue in the classroom. ELT Journal, 46(4), 350-355.

    Kachru, B. B. (1982). The other tongue: English across cultures. Oxford: Pergamon.

    Kamhi-Stein, L. D. (Ed.). (2004). Learning and teaching from experience: Perspectives on non-native English speaking professionals. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

    Liu, D., Ahn, G-S., Baek, K-S., & Han, N-O. (2004). South Korean high school English teachers’ code switching: Questions and challenges in the drive for maximal use of English in teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 605-638.

    Littlewood, W., & Yu, B. (2009).First language and target language in the foreign language classroom. Language Teacher 42: 1-14.

    Llurda, E. (Ed.). (2005). Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges, and contributions to the profession. New York: Springer.

    Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing student teachers” codeswitching in foreign language classrooms: Theories and decision making. Modern Language Journal, 85(4), 531-548.

    Mahboob, A. (2010). The NNEST Lens: Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.

    Rampton, M. B. H. (1990/1996). Displacing the “native speaker”: Expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. In P. Hedge & N. Whitney (Eds.) Power, Pedagogy and Practice (pp. 9-22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Scott, V. M. & De La Fuente, M. J. (2008). What’s the problem? L2 learners’ use of the L1 during consciousness-raising, form-focused tasks. Modern
    Language Journal, 92(1) 100-113.

    Song, Y., & Andrews, S. (2009). The L1 in L2 learning: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Muenchen: Lincom Europa.

    Stern, H. H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. P. Allen & B. Harley (Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Swain, M., Kirkpatrick, A. & Cummins, J. (2011). How to Have a Guilt-free Life Using Cantonese in the English Class: A Handbook for the English
    Language Teacher in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Research Centre into Language Acquisition and Education in Multilingual Societies, Hong Kong Institute of Education.

    Tang, J. (2002). Using L1 in the English classroom. English Teaching Forum, January, 36-43.

    Turnbull, M. (2001). There is a role for the L1 in second and foreign language teaching. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(4), 531-540.

    Turnbull, M., & Arnett, K. (2002). Teachers’ uses of the target and first languages in second and foreign language classrooms. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 204-218.

    Turnbull, M., & Dailey-O’Cain, J. (Eds.). (2009). First language use in second and foreign learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Üstünel E., & Seedhouse, P. (2005). Why that, in that language, right now? Code-switching and pedagogical focus. International Journal of Applied
    Linguistics, 15(3), 302-324.

    Weschler, J. V. (Ed.). (1997.) Uses of Japanese in the English classroom: Introducing the functional-translation method. Journal of Kyoritsu Area Studies, Tokyo, 12, 87-110.

  11. I am a Japanese English teacher. I do not think using only a target language is the best, but I do not think the use of the local language should be encouraged either as long as the purposes of the classroom teaching can be attained in either the target language or the local language. There are still many advantages in using a target language in a language class, such as for developing top-down listening, or developing tolerance of ambiguity when comprehension is not clear at one moment. It is also very difficult to switch back to a target language once recognition of the local language speaker among students is formed. I don't think it is a matter of language choice whether the classroom instruction is effective or not.

  12. I often use my knowledge of Spanish (& as a base Latin) to Spanish (& Latin-based languages) learners in my EFL classroom. Of course, I am sensitive to other learners from other countries (classes are always multilingual) by not rolling the Spanish translations of vocabulary or grammar concepts straight away. The important thing is, not matter which culture or language, to present a context for the learner to think what the words may mean from their own experience. Employing higher order thinking skills will also help train a learner in the differences between their own culture and language and English.

    Teacher as slave... we shouldn't be there to pander to the whim of all of our students; it makes them lazy and us more tired than necessary; silly idea. However, if the teacher asks, "How do you think you say that in your language?" it can serve as an accuracy check (as to teaching method & learner's comprehension).

    Finally, working 1 to 1 with learners often I know very easily if they comprehend something new or not. This is when translation can help. Of course, you've got to be proficient in the language before you can confidently state your translation.

    @BobToms100 (Twitter)

  13. Thanks for sharing.It's a long debated topic in EFL context. As for my own teaching experience, L1 is sometimes used in the classroom. My colleagues are also using L1 in their classes. There are many reasons. Also, many studies have explored this issue. However, there is not a definite answer so far. Perhaps the answer doesn't exist because the teaching context and learning environment in different areas vary a lot.If L1 could be used to improve L2 learning, it's good.

  14. Learning a new language is not just about learning the words. Instead, one is required to think with a new set of labels for everything around them. Recognizing this, many language courses use pictures and symbols to illustrate the meanings of new words instead of handing out vocabulary lists with translations into one's native language.

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